DURABILITY (D) CRACK: A series of closely-spaced cracks adjacent and roughly parallel to concrete pavement joints caused by the freezing and thawing of unsound aggregates that have high moisture content. (3) A tabular-shaped igneous intrusion. Copyright 2020 , Engineering Interview Questions.com, CIVIL Engineering Terms and Definitions | Terminology | Meanings. PLANS: The official project plans and Standard Plans, profiles, typical cross sections, cross sections, working drawings and supplemental drawings, or reproductions thereof, approved by the Engineer, which show the location, character, dimensions and details of the work to be performed. TACK WELD: A temporary half-inch thick weld that holds steel parts together during fabrication. SUPERSTRUCTURE: All that part of a structure above and including the bearing of simple and continuous spans, skewbacks of arches and top of footings of rigid frames, excluding back-walls, wing-walls, and wing protection rails. (2) Removing formwork. FATIGUE: The lowering of the breaking-load of a member by repeated reversals of stress so that the member fails at a much lower stress than it can withstand under static loading. GORE: The V (Triangular) shaped area immediately beyond the divergence of two roadways bounded by the edges of those roadways. NEGATIVE MOMENT: A condition of flexure (Bending) in which top fibers of a horizontally placed member (Beam), or external fibers of a vertically placed exterior member (Column), are subjected to tensile stresses. SEALANT OR SEALING COMPOUND: (1) A fluid of plastic consistency laid over a joint surface or the outside of a joint filler to exclude water. PIER CAP: The top part of a bridge pier which uniformly distribute the concentrated loads from the bridge over the pier . The strength loss is roughly 5% for each 1% air entrained. Bay : The space between two piers, columns or projections. DUCTILITY: The ability of a metal to undergo cold plastic deformation without breaking, particularly by pulling in cold drawing. ALIGNMENT: (1) The fixing of points on the ground in the correct lines for setting out a road, railway, wall, transmission line, canal, etc. DENSITY INDEX (relative density): is a measure of the tendency or ability to compact soil during loading. It is used as pozzolan or as an admixture to cement. PLASTICIZER OR WATER REDUCER: An admixture in mortar or concrete which can increase the workability of a mix so much, that the water content can be low and the mortar or concrete strength can thus be increased. PIT: Any borrow pit, mine, quarry or surface excavation to obtain sand, clay, gravel, etc. Cowl: A hood shaped top for a chimney; a ventilating top of a sewage pipe. Gable : The entire end wall of a building. Bevel: Any inclination of two surfaces other than 90 deg. SUBCONTRACTOR: An individual, partnership, firm, corporation or any acceptable combination thereof, or joint venture, to which the contractor sublets a part of the contract. ABRASION: The process of wearing away by friction. If the expansion due to temperature rise or the contraction due to temperature drop is restrained, the member concerned is stressed in compression during rising temperature or tension during falling temperature. (2) Sand or grit for bituminous road-making which passes a sieve of 3 mm square opening. SPECIFICATIONS: Written or printed description of construction work to be done forming part of the contract, describing qualities of material and mode of construction, and giving dimensions and other information not shown in drawings. It is the minimum water content at which a soil can be rolled into a thread of 1/8 inch diameter without crumbling. DETOUR: A temporary route for traffic around a closed portion of a road. . It includes bidding procedures, legal requirements, insurance requirements, material and workmanship requirements, inspection and testing procedures, and procedures for measurement and payment of the work, also the specifications establish obligations of the contracting parties with respect to the State (Client) and his Engineer, it is the obligation to clearly define what is required; to establish a plan for its enforcement to the extent required during the period of execution; and to indicate how the work will be measured and paid for. COURSE: The roadway horizontal pavement layer. Pedestal: A base or support, as for a column or statue, and generally of a bigger size. DEVIATION: Difference between the value and the average of a set. 200 sieve (74 micron or 0.074 mm). For ‘A’ :-ABRASION: The process of wearing away by friction. Moment (M) = Stress × Modulus of Section or (M) = Force × Arm. 12:01 a.m. to midnight. FILLET WELD: A weld of roughly triangular cross-section between two pieces at right angles. TOUGHNESS: The resistance of a material to repeated bending and twisting. RELEASE AGENT OR PARTING AGENT OR PARTING COMPOUND: A general term that includes any greases, mould oils or sealants, laid over forms or form linings either to ensure a good finish to the concrete, to prevent concrete bonding to forms or to improve the durability of the form or for both. The advantages of this mix are: It stops cracks from reflecting through pavement layers, reduce the riding tires noise and is a useful way to dispose of the used rubber tires.